Der transzendentale Standpunkt und das Anwendungsproblem bei Fichte

Point de vue transcendantal et philosophie appliquée chez J.G.Fichte. Le perspectivisme transcendantal comme épistémologie critique de l’éthique appliquée

Promotion Quentin Landenne, M.A.

Our aim is to test the speculative and conceptual resources as well as the historical limits of an actualisation of the Fichtean Philosophy (in its “applied” part, and especially in the domains of ethics and politics), confronting it to the contemporary debates concentrated on the positions of Habermas and Apel about the question of transcendentalism (and the ultimate foundation of reason) and about its consequences for the relationship between ethics and politics. We would like to show how far the existing tensions between these two differentiated domains of social norms could be clarified by what we would call a “transcendental perspectivism” which we reconstruct from the Fichtean theory of points of view. Such a transcendental theory of practical points of view is then called to play a role as a critical epistemology of applied ethics in political domain. Relating to this issue, the thesis is structured in three parts characterised by their own methodological orientations: 1) a part of history of philosophy giving a reading of series of Fichtean texts thematically selected and replaced in their systematic context, i.e. the Wissenschaftslehre (WL); 2) a part of contemporary philosophy trying to reconstruct a constellation of philosophical debates which are relevant for our purpose and concentrated on the two aforementioned representatives of the Discourse Ethics (DE); 3) a critical part confronting the philosophical complexes of the WL and the DE taking again the problematical axes of the two first parts, prolonging the analysis until present problems of social ethics. We will attempt to make appear some black boxes of both theories as well as the possible forms of epistemological complementarities between the speculative and the critical-theoretical points of view. The main question is: “What is the current empirical–practical relevance of the transcendental philosophy of freedom confronting to the problem of applying the moral point of view to polity?”

Laufzeit: 1.10.2006 - 1.10.2009